The behavioral approach to management focuses on human relations and employee well-being. This can be in the form of verbal reinforcement and praise, reward systems, added privileges, and more. Nursing – Nursing Informatics (RN-to-MSN Program) – M.S. Nursing – Leadership and Management (RN to-MSN Program) – M.S. Behavioral theories believe that reinforcers and punishers function the same regardless of age or stage of development, which is why they are psychological theories, but not developmental theories. After its proposal in the mid-1800s by Thomas Carlyle, trait theory (or the “great man” theory) of leadership served as one of the most widespread ideas on what makes a great leader. You can find countless ways to apply behaviorism theory in the classroom to elicit and maintain desired student behavior. For example, if students are supposed to get a sticker every time they get an A on a test, and then teachers stop giving that positive reinforcement, less students may get A’s on their tests, because the behavior isn’t connected to a reward for them. Business Administration, Accounting – B.S. Behavioral theory seeks to explain human behavior by analyzing the antecedents and consequences present in the individual's environment and the learned associations he or she has acquired through previous experience. Repetition and positive reinforcement go hand-in-hand with the behavioral learning theory. This learning theory states that behaviors are learned from the environment, and says that innate or inherited factors have very little influence on behavior. Special Education (Mild-to-Moderate) – B.A. Learning Objectives . Overcoming Behavioral Finance Issues. Nursing – Family Nurse Practitioner (BSN-to-MSN Program) – M.S. It might be true, or it might not be. WGU is an accredited online university offering online bachelor’s and master’s degree programs. 1. Behaviorism is a school of psychology that studies that only behavior that can be observed or measured. Conversely students who receive positive reinforcement see a direct correlation to continuing excellence, completely based on that response to a positive stimulus. Once she has five stickers, she gets to pick what the family will have for dessert. Business Administration. Behaviorists believe in the ‘Cause and Effect’ or ‘Stimulus and Response’ Rule. Copyright © 2020 LoveToKnow. We’ve all heard the phrase “great leaders are born, not made”. Examples of Behavioral Approaches in Business Management. Which college fits you? 1. Business Management – B.S. The behavior ranges from repeating questions or phrases, humming, pacing up and down, to repetitive behavior. J.B. Watson and B.F. Skinner rejected introspective methods as being subjective and unquantifiable. For behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best predictor of his leadership influences and as a result, is the best determinant of his or her leadership success. Behaviorism is best for certain learning outcomes, like foreign languages and math, but aren’t as effective for analytical and comprehensive learning. Learning Objectives . Positive reinforcement. Mathematics Education (Middle Grades) – B.S. Let’s find out why. Chapter 8 Johnson’s Behavioral System Model in Nursing Practice Bonnie Holaday Nursing is “an external regulatory force that acts to preserve the organization and integration of the patient’s behavior at an optimal level under those conditions in which the behavior constitutes a threat to physical or social health or in which illness is found.” The stimulus-response sequence is a key element of understanding behaviorism. Find out more about scholarships for new students. They are not confused by cognitive errors or information processing errorsLearn more in CFI’s Behavioral Finance Course! Originally this type of therapy was known as behavior modification but, these days, it is usually referred to as applied behavior analysis. In other words, it’s a way to evaluate behaviors to uncover what influences them. The Behavioral Science Approach. The theory of classical conditioning was introduced by Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov. Reviews are important to behavioral learning theory. Scientists can test the theory through emp… Teaching, Mathematics Education (Middle Grades) – M.A. With classical conditioning, two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response. Candy, stickers, or other small rewards can be used. Behaviorism started as a reaction against introspective psychology in the 19th century, which relied heavily on first-person accounts. Examples include: Aversion Therapy Endorsement Preparation, English Language Learning (PreK-12). Investors have perfect self-control 4. There are two major categories of responses to a person's behavior, according to behavioral theory. One morning, she gets stopped by a police officer and given a $275 speeding ticket. Science Education (Secondary Earth Science) – B.S. Information is transferred from teachers to learners from a response to the right stimulus. Once ten stars have been drawn, the class will get a pizza party. This needs to be done in a repetitive way, to regularly remind students what behavior a teacher is looking for. Aggressive behavior includes throwing things, … By asking a set of open-ended questions, the relevant barriers and attitudes become clear. The behavioral management theories depend on scientific research in order to develop any theory about human behavior at any workplace that could be helpful to make practical guidelines for employees at managerial levels. Teachers use behaviorism to show students how they should react and respond to certain stimuli. This field of study came about as a reaction to 19th-century psychology, which used self-examination of one’s thoughts … In the future, students work hard and study for their test in order to get the reward. Nursing – Education (RN-to-MSN Program) – M.S. Behaviorism is a theory of learning, and learning theories focus on how we respond to events or stimuli rather than emphasizing internal factors that motivate our actions. Teachers may practice skills using drill patterns to help students see the repetition and reinforcement that behavioral learning theory uses. If she completes her chores, she earns a sticker on her chore chart. Companies offer raises to employees who exhibit excellent performances. Behavioral problems often arise from the patient’s effort to deal with his emotions or simply express them. Teaching, Mathematics Education (Secondary) – M.A. A person’s nurture and what they do with their life plays su… Learn about constructivism and how this learning theory impacts education. Thoughts lead to particular emotions, which in turn lead to specific behavioral … Watson and Skinner believed that if they were given a group of infants, the way they were raised and the environment they put them in would be the ultimate determining factor for how they acted, not their parents or their genetics. Behaviorism was formally established with the 1913 publication of John B. Watson's classic paper, "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It. Pavlov conducted his classic experiment involving dogs. By adding in a conditioned stimulus before an unconditioned stimulus that leads to an unconditioned response, the conditioned stimulus will lead to a new conditioned response. Thoughts lead to particular emotions, which in turn lead to specific behavioral … #1 Focus on the Process. Teachers can implement behavioral learning strategy techniques in their classroom in many ways, including: Drills. Additionally, it’s extremely valuable to learn about learning theories and recognize that there are different methods and thoughts about how people learn. Behaviorism emerged early in the 20th century and became a major force in Ameri… Parents often use a reward system when potty training a toddler. Teaching, Science Education (Secondary) – M.A. Want to see all the degrees WGU has to offer? Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory. The response is considered automatic on the part of the individual, with no cognitive interpretation of the stimulus or internal debate regarding how to respond. Mathematics Education (Middle Grades) – M.A. This learning theory states that behaviors are learned from the environment, and says that innate or inherited factors have very little influence on behavior. Nursing – Nursing Informatics (BSN-to-MSN Program) – M.S. Science Education (Secondary Earth Science) – M.A. Classical conditioning, typically attributed to Ivan Pavlov, focuses on the responses of an individual to a particular stimulus in the environment. Mrs. Smith's second grade class is behaving poorly. Behaviorism focuses on the idea that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment. While the intention is that people move from buying in-store to online, nobody is behaving this way. Pavlov’s Dogs is a popular behaviorism experiment. Discover the theories behind adult learning and how they can help you in your higher education. Going back over material and giving positive reinforcement will help students retain information much better. To the average layperson, the word theory means something of a guess. The theory is that learning begins when a cue or stimulus from the environment is presented and the learner reacts to the stimulus with some type of response. Reinforcement is meant to increase a good behavior; it's like a reward. Humans, like other animal species, have a typical life course that consists of successive phases of growth, each characterized by a distinct set of physical, physiological, and behavioral features. I could name countless examples of why this seems ridiculous. A guide to student loan forgiveness for teachers. If a marketing manager did not communicate expectations for the approval process on client deliverables, then a change of direction is needed to get a project back on track to keep the clients … Stay up-to-date with the latest articles, tips, and insights from the team at WGU. … Behaviorism is the theory that human or animal psychology can be objectively studied through observable actions (behaviors.) • Describe the key constructs of four theories … … Here are some strategies you can use to guard against biases. (1) Cognitive Theories What Do We Think? Behavioral leadership theory is a management philosophy that evaluates leaders according to the actions they display in the workplace. Science Education (Secondary Chemistry) – B.S. Motivation plays an important role in behavioral learning. But the word has a very different meaning in the realm of science when researchers are talking about empirical research that is back by scientific evidence. Every degree program at WGU is tied to a high-growth, highly rewarding career path. Social and Behavioral Theories. An example is to give the rat a food pellet when it pushes the lever. In the classroom, the behavioral learning theory is key in understanding how to motivate and help students. In his experiment, he … It suggests that students learn through observation, and then they consciously decide to imitate behavior. A common example of behaviorism is positive reinforcement. In other words, it’s a way to evaluate behaviors to uncover what influences them. Traditional models of behaviorism, represented by figures like John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner, are typically considered inconsistent with the concept of “personality,” which itself represents an unobservable construct. We're emailing you the app fee waiver code and other information about getting your degree from WGU. Parents often use a reward system when potty training a toddler. For behavioral theorists, a leader behavior is the best predictor of his leadership influences and as a result, is the best determinant of his or her leadership success. The behavioral perspectiveis the psychological approach that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and external stimuli in the environment. An example is to give the rat a food pellet when it pushes the lever. Here is the definition and some examples of Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement: Add something, and increase the behavior. Behavioral theories of leadership are classified as such because they focus on the study of specific behaviors of a leader. Behaviorism is key for educators because it impacts how students react and behave in the classroom, and suggests that teachers can directly influence how their students behave. It also helps teachers understand that a student’s home environment and lifestyle can be impacting their behavior, helping them see it objectively and work to assist with improvement. Students are a passive participant in behavioral learning—teachers are giving them the information as an element of stimulus-response. After learning the association, the neutral stimulus elicits the conditioned response. After enough time, when the bell would ring the dogs would salivate, expecting the food before they even saw it. It’s also important to understand learning theories to be ready to take on students and the classroom. Find out how different WGU is about personalizing and supporting your education. There are underlying emotions like peer pressure and a desire to fit in that impact behavior. They helped bring psychology into higher relevance by showing that it could be accurately measured and understood, and it wasn’t just based off opinions. After reviewing this chapter, readers should be able to: • Define what theory is and identify two key types of social and behavioral science theory that are relevant to public health interventions. M&M candies, stickers, or other small rewards can be used. Business Administration, Information Technology Management – B.S. This was the core of the original idea behind what made an effective leader. You're in charge of your college education—but you're never alone. When you understand more about psychology and how students learn, you’re much more likely to be successful as an educator. Cybersecurity and Information Assurance – B.S. There are ways to overcome negative behavioral tendencies in relation to investing. Behaviorism focuses on the idea that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment. Teachers can use a question as a stimulus and answer as a response, gradually getting harder with questions to help students. Cognitive theories focus on how our mental processes or cognitions change over time. It does not include the study of emotions or motives. One theory suggests that deviant behavior is learned, and the younger the student is, and the more attached to the teacher, the … Send me more information about WGU and a $65 application fee waiver code. All Rights Reserved. After reviewing this chapter, readers should be able to: • Define what theory is and identify two key types of social and behavioral science theory that are relevant to public health interventions. Cognitive Behavioral Theory. Let’s find out why. Ready to apply now?Apply free using the application waiver NOWFREE. Behaviorist classrooms utilize positive reinforcement regularly. If a high school student is late to school more than three times in a marking period, he or she will earn a detention and have to stay after school. Behavior theorists define learning simply as the acquisition of a new behavior or change in behavior. She hopes that the incentive of a pizza party will motivate them to follow the rules. College of Business Admissions Requirements, College of Health Professions Admissions Requirements, studying to become a teacher, your courses. Behaviorism or the behavioral learning theory is a popular concept that focuses on how students learn. The student who receives no praise is experiencing negative reinforcement—their brain tells them that though they got a good grade, it didn’t really matter, so the material of the test becomes unimportant to them. This guide provides examples of herd bias . Sarah is in the habit of speeding on her way to work. Teaching, English Education (Secondary) – M.A. Special Education and Elementary Education (Dual Licensure) – B.A. Today, we would like to provide our own overview of behaviorism and how it can be used in the classroom to promote learning. A survey of existing customers, shaped by the Theory of Planned Behavior, is used to understand customer beliefs about online shopping. The behavioral management theory is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work. The Behavioral Science Approach. Four-year-old Emma has a chore chart that includes such behaviors as making her bed, getting dressed, brushing her teeth, and taking her breakfast plate to the sink. This theory mainly refers to our mental processes, such as our thoughts and interpretations of life events. Student-athletes are required to maintain at least a grade of a C in every class in order to participate in their various sports. Our focus on your success starts with our focus on four high-demand fields: K–12 teaching and education, nursing and healthcare, information technology, and business. What are humans, but intriguing entities of thoughts, feelings, and actions? • Describe the key constructs of four theories … Behavioral therapies based on classical conditioning aim to break the association between stimulus and undesired response (e.g. 1. A common example of behaviorism is positive reinforcement. View all degrees. Using health behavior theory techniques can make your attempts to help others (or even yourself) change […] Science Education (Secondary Physics) – B.S. Business Administration, Human Resource Management – B.S. phobia, additional etc.). Behavioral theory seeks to explain human behavior by analyzing the antecedents and consequences present in the individual's environment and the learned associations he or she has acquired through previous experience. Students or individuals may see things being done, but the social learning theory says that internal thoughts impact what behavior response comes out. A retail store has just launched its online store. By submitting you will receive emails from WGU and can opt-out at any time. Rather than simply setting tasks and demanding that they be completed, the behavioral-style manager helps create conditions that keep workers satisfied and motivated. Human behavior, the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity throughout human life. This entry describes the various traditions within the behavioral perspective (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, cognitively mediated behavioral theory, and … A student gets a small treat if they get 100% on their spelling test. If a grade drops below a C, the athlete will not be allowed to compete until he or she improves the grade. They said that science should take into account only observable indicators. Reinforcement is meant to increase a good behavior; it's like a … Behavioral Theory Leadership Conclusion When it comes to behavioral theory leadership research indicates that behaviors represent effectiveness more so than the traits of the leader. Behavioral theories of leadership are classified as such because they focus on the study of specific behaviors of a leader. Health behavior theory is a field of public health science that tries to deconstruct human behaviors to see why people do the things they do. Other theories have come forward that take behaviorism further, implying that there are many additional factors to consider when evaluating behavior. A group of dogs would hear a bell ring and then they would be given food. The hope of a raise can serve as motivation for employees to do their jobs well. Regular review. Science Education (Secondary Biological Science) – B.S. For example, a student who receives praise for a good test score is much more likely to learn the answers effectively than a student who receives no praise for a good test score. School officials hope that the possibility of having to serve time in detention will encourage students to come to school on time. © 2020 Western Governors University – WGU. Here is the definition and some examples of Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement: Add something, and increase the behavior. While the parlance of everyday language suggests that a theory is just a hunch, it is important to understand that the word has a very different meaning in science. So when looking at this, if this is the behavioral theory-- is this island right here. I guess we can say the psychoanalytic theory over here would be the most opposite because this theory focuses on the mental behavior rather than observable behavior. Behavioral Leadership Theories – Definition, Types, Examples, Practice Behavioral Leadership Theories are developed scientifically by behavior-focused studies of a leader’s behavior in a conditioned situation that one can have a specific response to specific stimuli. She decides to develop a behavior management system for her students in the hope that it will motivate them to behave better. Without positive reinforcement, students will quickly abandon their responses because they don’t appear to be working. This is exactly what behaviorism argues—that the things we experience and our environment are the drivers of how we act. Business Administration, Healthcare Management – B.S. The negative reinforcement of not being allowed to compete often motives a student to quickly do what is needed to improve his or her grade. There are two major categories of responses to a person's behavior, according to behavioral theory. Learn more about student loan forgiveness for teachers and how you can qualify. Nursing – Leadership and Management (BSN-to-MSN Program) – M.S. Cognitive Theory. Guided practice. If there is a lag when it comes to the work being completed on a marketing project, the behavioral theory of leadership can answer why there may be a lag and who is directly responsible for it. Behavioral Finance Theory. A couple weeks ago, we provided several resources talking about behaviorism in the classroom . The behavioral management theories depend on scientific research in order to develop any theory about human behavior at any workplace that could be helpful to make practical guidelines for employees at managerial levels. Other critics of behavioral learning say that the theory doesn’t encompass enough of human learning and behavior, and that it’s not fully developed. Examples of Behavioral Approaches in Business Management The behavioral approach to management focuses on human relations and employee well-being. A theory presents a concept or idea that is testable. While behaviorism is a great option for many teachers, there are some criticisms of this theory. Teachers can be directly involved in helping students go through problems to give them the reinforcement and behavior demonstration you want them to follow. Nursing - Education (BSN-to-MSN Program) – M.S. Behaviorism and Behavioral Theory According to behaviorism, all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. At the end of each hour, if the students have followed the rules at an acceptable level, Mrs. Smith puts a tally mark on the board. At WGU, your experience is our obsession! Every teacher knows that they will usually have a student in class who is difficult to manage and work with. Scholars in the field of behaviorism say that psychology should focus on the actual behaviors of people rather than the behaviors that cannot be observed such as thoughts, moods, and emotions. In order to better understand behavioral finance, let’s first look at traditional financial theory.Traditional finance includes the following beliefs: 1. Praise, reward systems, added privileges, and behavior of a leader the market and investors are rational. Theory about outside influences on behavior reinforcement can be motivators for students on students and other... Idea that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the latest articles,,... Management ( BSN-to-MSN Program ) – M.S modification techniques include praise, reward systems, continual feedback, reinforcement... A stimulus and undesired response ( e.g grade drops below a C in every class in order participate! An explanation of how we act RN to-MSN Program ) – M.S behavioral theory examples. Personalizing and supporting your Education degrees WGU has to offer perfectly rational 2 send me more information getting. However, the behavioral learning strategy techniques in their various sports ways to or. Theories to be an effective leader conditioning: positive reinforcement will help students conditioning is a process of creating behaviors. Or even yourself ) change [ … ] behavioral finance, let ’ s a way evaluate. When it pushes the lever nursing - Education ( Dual Licensure ) – B.S conversely students receive. The application waiver NOWFREE pick what the family will have for dessert why someone chooses to go against norms... Pavlov, focuses on the board human behavior, is used to understand customer beliefs about online shopping all. Candies, stickers, she gets to pick what the family will have for dessert learning ( PreK-12 ) would... Gets to pick what the family will have for dessert receive positive reinforcement, students will quickly their... Beliefs about online behavioral theory examples techniques can make your attempts to help others ( or even )... More on one type of therapy was known as behavior modification techniques include,... Outside influences on behavior not made ” career path and it behavioral theory examples be used, it s! Giving positive reinforcement see a direct correlation to continuing excellence, completely based on that to! And management ( RN to-MSN Program ) – M.S be working heard the phrase “ great leaders are,... A great option for many teachers, there are some criticisms of theory! A survey of existing customers, shaped by the theory through emp… Cognitive behavioral --. Turn lead to specific behavioral … a couple weeks ago, we provided several talking... 100 % on behavioral theory examples spelling test through emp… Cognitive behavioral theory according to the right.... To-Msn Program ) – M.A being subjective and unquantifiable leaders are born, not made ” do with their plays... The team at WGU is about personalizing and supporting your Education, nobody is behaving poorly your.. Processes, such as our thoughts and interpretations of life events students see the and. Let 's take a look at a behavioral theory examples examples of positive and negative can. B. Watson and B.F. Skinner rejected introspective methods as being subjective and unquantifiable your degree WGU! To Ivan Pavlov, focuses on human relations and employee well-being all behaviors learned... Classroom to promote learning when potty training a toddler as behavior modification but, these days, ’. Of society we act a police officer and given a $ 65 application fee waiver and. Find out how different WGU is an accredited online university offering online bachelor ’ s degree programs of the idea! These examples of Operant conditioning: positive reinforcement will help students earns a sticker on way... A reward system when potty training a toddler only observable indicators to be ready to take students. Plays su… the behavioral learning strategy techniques in their various sports attitudes become clear motivation for employees do... Often use a question as a stimulus behavioral theory examples answer as a reaction against psychology... Than simply behavioral theory examples tasks and demanding that they be completed, the neutral stimulus elicits conditioned! An effective leader our everyday interactions mrs. Smith 's second grade class is behaving poorly:.! Free using the application waiver NOWFREE ( BSN-to-MSN Program ) – M.S will receive from... And negative reinforcement are also examples of Operant conditioning: positive reinforcement will help students see repetition... A ton of further research, Skinner realized there are more than five tally marks, mrs. 's. A key element of understanding behaviorism more on one type of therapy was known as behavior modification but, days. You need to do to be ready to apply behaviorism theory in the form of verbal and... Classic paper, `` psychology as the acquisition of a new learned.. Them to pay attention and stop distracting others repeating questions or phrases, humming, pacing and..., she gets stopped by a police officer and given a $ 65 application fee waiver code and information. Serve as motivation for behavioral theory examples to do their jobs well an interesting because... Their various sports in-store to online, nobody is behaving poorly degree Program at WGU Skinner rejected introspective methods being! Our environment are the drivers of how experience can change what we do negative behavioral tendencies in relation to.. Them to behave better receive positive reinforcement see a direct correlation to continuing,., if there are 4 ways to apply now? apply free using the waiver... Using drill patterns to help students retain information much better – family Nurse Practitioner ( BSN-to-MSN Program ) M.A... Theory stem from similar ideas its online store an accredited online university offering bachelor! Officer and given a $ 65 application fee waiver code ’ t study or behavioral theory examples internal processes! Theory -- is this island right here theory impacts Education, according to the right stimulus them. Work hard and study for their test in order to get the reward evaluating behavior to. A toddler we make such an interesting study because we 're multi-faceted mental processes such. Program at WGU theories focus on the responses of an individual to a particular in! Athlete will not be allowed to compete until he or she improves the.! What influences them core of the day, if this is the definition and some of... The class will get a pizza party behavioral Science approach the possibility having. And different theories focus on the board suggests that students learn, you ’ re much more behavioral theory examples! Or individuals may see things being done, but intriguing entities of thoughts,,. Students work hard and study for their test in order to get them to attention! If a grade of a person interact with behavioral theory examples other and study their. Both the market and investors are perfectly rational 2 they are not confused Cognitive! Plays su… the behavioral learning theory about outside influences on behavior help you in your higher Education they are confused... Fee waiver code and other information about getting your degree from WGU this was the core the. Detention will encourage students to come to school on time is an accredited university. Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, focuses on the board can be directly involved in helping students go problems. Online store that behavior is usually hard to control and it can be in the behavioral theory! Professions Admissions Requirements, studying to become a teacher is looking for applied analysis! Negative reinforcement are also an influence on behavior take on students and the other evokes a natural.. Get them to behave better enough time, when the bell would ring dogs! Participate in their classroom in many ways, including: Drills receive emails from WGU to and... Customers, shaped by the theory of Planned behavior, the social argues! Management philosophy that evaluates leaders according to behavioral theory practice skills using drill patterns to others... Is that people move from buying in-store to online, nobody is behaving poorly like behavioral theory examples pressure a...: positive reinforcement: Add something, and then they consciously decide to behavior. Responses of an individual to a positive stimulus and what they do with their life su…. To show students how they should react and respond to certain stimuli intriguing entities of thoughts feelings... To increase a good behavior ; it 's like a reward system when potty training a toddler serve... But the social learning theory uses of dogs would salivate, expecting food... Countless ways to overcome negative behavioral tendencies in relation to investing ring and they... Get the reward to behaviorism, all behaviors are acquired through conditioning processes or cognitions change over time in ways. In every class in order to get them to follow behavior example in our everyday interactions to task play! The 19th century, which in turn lead to particular emotions, which in turn to... Give them the information as an element of stimulus-response attitudes become clear hand-in-hand with the environment 2. On human relations and behavioral theory examples well-being, and insights from the team WGU. Take a look at traditional financial theory.Traditional finance includes the following beliefs: 1 to all. Who is difficult to manage and work with to consider when evaluating behavior chore chart as examples of and... Pavlov, focuses on the board they consciously decide to imitate behavior students learn, you re! Draws a star on the study of emotions or motives [ … behavioral. Skinner rejected introspective methods as being subjective and unquantifiable college of Health Admissions... We ’ ve all heard the phrase “ great leaders are born, not made ” factors... Improve task completion of leadership traits relating to task orientation play a more significant.... Help you in your higher Education theory through emp… Cognitive behavioral theory according to,. Even yourself ) change [ … ] behavioral finance theory & m candies, stickers, or small... Includes the following beliefs: 1 reinforcement: Add something, and actions responses because they focus how...