Sooty mold feeds on the sticky honeydew left by aphids and scale insects, which can sometimes be found on maple trees. The developing females and nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew which can collect on foliage and branches and cause growth of sooty mold. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE is an insect pest of maples, especially silver maples and locust trees primarily, but also will infest several other species. Contact information for each states diagnostic laboratory for U.S. residents. The "cotton" is actually waxy threads covering as many as 1,500 eggs. There are systemic insecticides available that can be used to control scale. reduce next year's infestation. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. Upon closer examination, these branches are likely to be covered with small bumps that are actually scale insects. This insect is active throughout the United States and attacks many shade trees and shrubs, but it is primarily found on soft Maples and Lindens. Publication: Maple Syrup Digest Date: October 1, 2007. Japanese maple scales small size, ability to blend in, and long crawler emergence period make it difficult to control. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as «crawlers». Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is a soft scale insect pest that commonly attacks maple trees, but can be found on a variety on hosts. Adult scale insects are usually covered in waxy shell-like cover. Management-cultural control. One year of heavy scale Scale insects are major pests on ornamental trees, orchards, indoor plants and even ferns. This post is on the Japanese Maple Scale. Oystershell scales spend the winter as eggs under the tests of the females. The adult scale insect is often like a dark brown limpet, which attaches itself to the stem and branches of plants. Although it This insect note describes an integrated pest management approach to identifying, monitoring, and managing these pests. They also do not kill predators. Pest description and damage Mature cottony maple scale are small, flat, oval, brown insects 0.25 to 0.375 inch in diameter. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. Ames, IA 50011-2031 Although less commonly seen, gloomy scale can also infect grapes, native hollies, sweetgum, and mulberry. 1. Later in the summer, they will form a protective shell and will not be It is caused by dry … However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. the immature females and die. The developing females and nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew which can collect on foliage and branches and cause growth of sooty mold. The overwintering form of the cottony maple scale is a small, brown, flattened 1/8 inch long scale attached to the bark of twigs and small branches. Sometimes a shiny, sticky coating will be on the leaves also. Weather and natural enemies team up to keep the cottony maple scale populations low in most years. Showing 1 – 1 of 1 resources. Although biological controls of cottony maple scale have not been studied, scale insects generally are preyed upon heavily by parasitic wasps. The males mature in late August and early September, mate with Appearance: The most noticeable stage is the brown adult female with a large cottony mass (egg sack) protruding from the rear. Leaves turn yellow and may drop from the plant. Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. Consequently, they may not be effective where several … Gloomy scale occurs on the soft maples like silver and red maple. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. Lecanium Scale: What A Sticky Mess! Please see our website for current forms, fees, and instructions on preserving and mailing insects. Types of Cottony Maple Scale. For a few The most common scale insects that infest maple trees are the armored varieties oystershell scale and scurfy scale, as well as the soft varieties cottony maple scale and lecanium scale. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. hard. If the infestation is severe for several years on twigs and branches. Large, healthy, established trees should be watched but do not need to be treated except in cases where honeydew dripping from heavily infested trees may be unacceptable. The Iowa State University Plant & Insect Diagnostic Clinic will identify your insect, provide information on what it eats, life cycle, and if it is a pest the best ways to manage them. categories of scaled, soft and found on silver maple trees. Each species has a different host range and life cycle. Generally, healthy trees should not be The cottony maple scale is common on maple, boxelder, hackberry, dogwood, beech, apple, oak, linden, honeylocust, and elm. You may substitute ordinary dishwashing detergent for the commercial products with little risk of injury to maple trees. They damage plants by sucking out plant juices. a thick, sweet substance called "honeydew." Newly emerged scales crawl to the leaves and settle on the undersurface and begin a sedentary existence of feeding on the tree’s sap. one generation occurs per year. These natural In the United States, it was first found on the east coast, but is rapidly expanding its range. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. Japanese maple scales small size, ability to blend in, and long crawler emergence period make it difficult to control. There are many types of scale insects and several of those produce a white cotton-like mass. The eggs hatch into pale yellow-green crawlers in late June or July and migrat… have provided some general information and One of the best-known in this family is Coccus viridis, also known as coffee scale or green scale. or the honeydew is causing serious problems beneath the tree, a chemical healthy tree. The scales grow to adulthood on the leaves and mate in August or September before the females return to the twigs to spend the winter. The female passes the winter as a small, brown scale less than 1/8” long. The cottony maple scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis (Rathvon), is a highly modified insect pest that commonly attacks silver and red maples in Ohio. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. If scale insects are not controlled, death of infested plants is possible. They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back . Twigs and Insecticide applications have the chance of upsetting the natural balance of biological controls present in the trees (by killing predators and parasites) and prolonging the occasional outbreak into a more serious problem. instructions on preserving and mailing insects. Since 2010, we have been monitoring Japanese maple scale populations to determine the life cycle of this scale insect in Maryland. Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. In the United States, it was first found on the east coast, but is rapidly expanding its range. Maple cotton scale is found on several other common hardwood trees such as ash, elm and boxelder. These pests are much more abundant and damaging in urban landscapes than natural forests. Also, keep infested trees adequately watered and fertilized If you live outside of Iowa please do not submit a sample without contacting the Plant & Insect Diagnostic Clinic. The cause of this annoyance is a tiny insect known as Cottony Maple Scale. The scale overwinters as an immature female on the twigs of the host. You'll know it's this mold if it rubs off easily on your fingers when you touch it. Coffee scale is a major agricultural pest in coffee crops. Even the occasional heavy populations will do little more than stunt tree growth with no lasting effect. Eliminating them may make the infestation 2006). vulnerable. several years. with your state's land grant university's These include some important scales, like Japanese maple scale, and euonymus scales, but not other important scales like oystershell scale and calico scale. By late spring the insect has developed into a mature female and begins laying as many as 1,000 eggs. Extension enemies eventually bring the problem under control for appropriate, localized recommendations. Scale-damaged plants look withered and sickly. Scorch symptoms are light brown or tan dead areas between leaf veins or around the leaf margins. Occasionally the leaf margins are yellow or chlorotic. The cottony maple scale shows up every few years on the twigs of silver maple trees. Although the insect does not usually cause much damage to the tree, it is truly a pest to the humans who live below because of the copious honey-dew excretions of the insect. gardener. Gypsy moth and elongate hemlock scale are typically moved in and around on Christmas trees and wreaths. 1). Two treatments 10 days apart are usually needed. There are more than 25 species of scale insect found in British Gardens. Only armored scale insects that winter … There are two broad There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Most maple species, such as red maple (Acer rubrum L.), silver maple (Acer sacc… However, you will never see just one of them, which makes them hard to miss. So far this summer, we’ve heard about cottony maple scale “outbreaks” in Dubuque, Linn, Buchanan, and Johnson counties. In armored scale, these covers are waxy, hard, circular or rounded in shape and detached from their bodies. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. It is a pest primarily of nurseries and is often on hollies. Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is a soft scale insect pest that commonly attacks maple trees, but can be found on a variety on hosts.Usually it is just a nuisance, but in very severe infestations, it can kill weakened trees or branches on otherwise healthy trees. the amount of honeydew will begin to decrease for this year. As autumn approaches, they will move toward … Gloomy scale is an insect that protects its self with a small covering. Japanese maple scale (Lopholeucaspis japonica) is a challenging scale to manage. Cottony Since much of the vine is removed at pruning, it may be unnecessary to apply control measures unless the scale is infesting the main trunk or cordons. Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. Maple trees are susceptible to scale, which feed off of the tree for nutrients. Heavily infested plants produce little new growth. Insecticidal soap is available from garden center, hardware and department stores under various trade names. This insect factsh… NC State Extension Publications scale over-winters as immature females (nymphs) Separating oystershell scale and Japanese maple scale is easiest at this time of the year. In 2013, we added Indian wax scale, white prunicola scale and juniper scale to the monitoring list to better determine crawler periods. Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. The eggs hatch around the first of July and the young, called hatch in early July. Scale insects form a protective covering over themselves for most of the year while they feed on the sap of plants. Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. Thorough spraying of leaf undersides is important for control. Scale insects are sap feeding insects. treated with chemicals since these will also kill Following a recommended fertility program and watering regime will promote plant health. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as \"crawlers\". As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. treatment may be warranted. When this material drops on leaves below the insect, a fungus called sooty mold begins to grow . As its name suggests, cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) affects mostly maple trees (predominantly silver and red maples). hurt the plant. Severe infestations that go on for several years may cause twig dieback and only under extreme conditions will entire trees be killed. There are many types of scale insects and several of those produce a white cotton-like mass. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up … This will turn leaves and stems black but does not Dormant oils sprays applied in early spring before the new growth Then, use a garden hose to wash away any loose insects. Cottony Maple Leaf Scale Entomology Insect Notes. The females mature when the plant resumes growth in the spring. Since the insects are unable to fully digest the sap, they excrete the excess in the form of a thick, sweet substance called "honeydew." underside of a leaf and insert their threadlike mouth parts into the tissue Gloomy scale is an armored scale insect pest of ornamental trees, most commonly red maple trees. Scale Insect Control. Cottony maple scale is a soft scale that infest maples, boxelder, basswood, birch, elm, and linden trees. General Information Skip to General Information. Gloomy scale attaches to … crawlers, move away from the females toward the leaves. 2 Soft Scales Soft scale insects typically have one generation per year and generally are larger in size though there are many variations in size, shape and color (figure 4). Early treatments, that is, sprays applied in June before the eggs hatch are not effective. Scale insects form a protective covering over themselves for most Homeowners are encouraged to spray with insecticidal soap if they decide to spray in spite of the absence of any direct threat to tree health and vigor. Newly emerged scales crawl to the leaves and settle on the undersurface and begin a sedentary existence of feeding on the tree’s sap. Soap sprays have no residual activity and only control insects that are contacted directly. Types of Cottony Maple Scale. The young scale or maples. Adult females are almost always immobile (apart from mealybugs) and permanently attached to the plant on which they are feeding. Physiological leaf scorch is the most common.